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(v) Random Scan Display Devices and Raster Scan Display
(vi) Computer Graphics and Animation 
(vii) Interlaced and progressive scan 
(viii) Compression and decompression in digital video 
(ix) Hypermedia and hypertext 
(x) Ray tracing and Ray casting



 A Bank allow different types of loans to its customers. One of the prerequisite for loan is that the customer should have an account with the bank. The customer can take housing loan, vehicle load or personal loan from the bank. The interest rate as well as maximum periods for these loans are different. The process of loan approval is done offline, but once loan is approved then all the services are offered online. A customer can request for installment of loan, or can prepay some loan through this website. The website also displays the transactions related to loan account including interest changed and amount deducted from the customer account. Study the various requirements for such a system from an actual bank. Analyse the requirements in details and design & develop the online loan management system. 


A hospital provides health care appointment facility through an online portal. You can book an OPD appointment of a Doctor at the time s/he is available in the hospital. You can also book for an Appointment for a Diagnostic Test. In order to do so, a patient first needs to register for the website. Registration process involves recording patient name, address, blood group, past medical history including height, weight, blood pressure, past diseases, allergies, current medications, etc. All these information is shown to the doctor at the time of visit of the patient. Analyse the requirements in details and design & develop the online system for the appointments. You may visit similar hospital portals for analysis of the problem domain. 
Assume there is a fixed size (say 4 blocks) memory area shared by 20 processes which may either read or write on those areas. Each process can seek access of one block for either reading or writing. A reader process can only read the data but it does not modify it, whereas, a writer process modifies the data of a given block. Thus, many reader processes can lock a data block in READ only mode whereas, a writer can lock the data block only if it is not locked by any other process in READ 
or WRITE mode. A process can write on the area if it obtains the WRITE lock on the data block. You must ensure the correctness of the updates of shared blocks. Also many processes may be allowed to access the shared block for reading at the same time. Write a program using semaphores that ensures proper reading and writing, you should also make sure that no process starves for a long time for reading or writing. You may make suitable assumptions for the implementation. You may use any programming language for this implementation.  

Design and develop a network of 4-8 computers and simulate the shortest path static routing algorithm from the server to all other nodes of the network. You may use any server. 

For Image Display aspx

<asp:repeater id="RepeaterImages" runat="server">
        <asp:image id="Image" imageurl="<%# Container.DataItem %>" runat="server">

For Page Load (aspx.cs)

protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
    string[] filesindirectory = Directory.GetFiles(Server.MapPath("~/Images"));
    List images = new List(filesindirectory.Count());

    foreach (string item in filesindirectory)
        images.Add(String.Format("~/Images/{0}", System.IO.Path.GetFileName(item)));

    RepeaterImages.DataSource = images;

Simulate the ALOHA protocol. You may use random number generators to create load. Also find the throughput and transmission of frames for random nodes. You may assume 4-8 nodes for this simulation. 

An Organisation has a single office in a town. The organisation has a number of resources that are used by its office staff. These resources include non-technological resources like conference rooms, transport vehicles etc., electrical devices like AC, Fans, Electric kettle, etc. and ICT equipment like Computer and printers. All these equipments are under servicing contract. In addition, equipments whose price is less than INR 10,000/- are purchased in surplus. The organization stores the maintenance history of each of its resource. Also every year all the stock which was purchased 5 years back is auctioned. New machines are purchased to replace these machines. The company also maintains the stock register and every year a depreciation of 20% is recorded in the book value of equipment. The company also tracks all its revenue which is due to monthly sale of its services- like hiring of conference rooms, holding an event etc. Every weekend engineers of the maintenance agencies visit the Organisation, take away all the damaged equipment for repair and return them by Monday. Some equipments are not taken away but preventive maintenance is performed of those equipment at the site. The company must keep track of status of all the equipments as a policy. You need to develop a computer based MIS about the uses and maintenance of equipment. This MIS system should be able to predict the future purchases, usage and maintenance history of all equipments. It should also inform the efficiency of the maintenance agencies. You must do proper analysis of the requirements and do a good design. Use suitable data structure/database to create this system. You may add more functionality into the system. 
A University uses assignments as one of the tool for formative evaluation. A student who enrolls for a programme of the University needs to submit one assignment for every subject that s/he enrolls in every semester. The assignments are submitted at a centre (called Learning Centre) where student attend theory and practical counseling sessions. You need to design and develop an Assignment Submission and Result Management system for the Learning Centre. Every subject has an assignment; the last date of submission of assignments of different subjects may be different. When assignments are submitted by the students, they are bundled in the lots of 50 each. An evaluator is allotted a maximum of 100 assignments (2 lots). The assignments are evaluated in two stages – in stage one evaluator is given the assignments and asked to evaluate them in a maximum duration of 2 weeks, in case an evaluator does not evaluate the assignment in two week time s/he is sent a reminder. In case an evaluator fails to submit the evaluated assignments in the duration of 3 weeks s/he is debarred for any further evaluation work. In such case these assignments are evaluated on request by another evaluator. The second stage of assignment evaluation is viva or presentation by the student. This is done in the presence of the evaluator who had evaluated the assignment. The comments of the evaluator are communicated to the student and marks are awarded to the student on completion of both the stages of evaluation by the evaluator. The marks of all the students are compiled as results of different assignments – programme wise and in programme, subject wise and sent to the University office in printed form (duly signed by evaluator and centre coordinator) as well as electronic form. The soft copy and hard copy data of marks of the student must be kept at the study centre for a period of 10 years, after which the marks are achieved in electronic form. Analyse the system requirements and do good system design. Use suitable data structure/database to create this system. You may add more functionality into the system. 

Perform following queries using SQL: 

(i) To find the total rent earned during certain time interval (input to be given by the user) for          a   particular aptID.
(ii) To display all the aptIDs if the street ID and City are given. 
(iii) To display the list of all the renters who have more than one apt.
(iv) To display the list of all aptIDs whose rent is equal to or more than Rs.15,000/- per month          in  a particular street with apt size more than 850sq feet. 
(v) To display all the details of the apartment which were bought before year 2000 in a                      particular city  and street. 
Write shell programs for the following:                                                                           (15 Marks) 

(a) To find second largest number among the 5 numbers given. 

(b) To find sum of all the alternate digits in a given 7 digit number. 

(c) To count number of vowels in a given string. 

(d) To take 2 strings as input, concatenate them and display the length of the resultant string. 

(e) To display the reverse of a given number. 
Write and execute the following UNIX commands: 
(a) To change the password.
(b) To search files in the current directory/subdirectory for lines that match a particular string pattern        given as input.
 (c) To print the first 5 lines of a file.
(d) To print the number of processes run by a particular user.
(e) To kill a process that is running at the background.
(f) To display the count of no. of blank spaces in a given file.
(g) To sort alphabetically, a list of numbers stored in a data file in an ascending order.
(h) To convert the upper case letters to corresponding lower case letters in a text file.
(i) To count the number of users currently logged on.
(j) To display the calendar for a given month and year. 

Design the system architecture and the database as per the needs of the system. You must perform normalization on tables up to 3 rd normal form. The table design must include Primary and Foreign keys and constrains. 
After identifying the requirements, create Analysis Models. You may either use the classical approach and draw Entity relationship diagram and data flow diagrams (DFD’s) up to level 2-3; or you may take object oriented analysis approach and create class diagram, use case diagram, use cases etc.
Study the system and create a software requirement specification. You must identify either the processes or objects while analyzing. During the analysis give consideration to possible input and output of the processes.  

Process Flow in Data Warehouse
There are four major processes that contribute to a data warehouse:
  • Extract and load the data.
  • Cleaning and transforming the data.
  • Backup and archive the data.
  • Managing queries and directing them to the appropriate data sources.

Star Schema

Each dimension in a star schema is represented with only one-dimension table.

This dimension table contains the set of attributes.

The following diagram shows the sales data of a company with respect to the four dimensions, namely time, item, branch, and location.

Introduction to Database Security

Database security entails allowing or disallowing user actions on the database and the objects within it. Oracle uses schemas and security domains to control access to data and to restrict the use of various database resources.
Oracle provides comprehensive discretionary access control. Discretionary access control regulates all user access to named objects through privileges. A privilege is permission to access a named object in a prescribed manner; for example, permission to query a table. Privileges are granted to users at the discretion of other users.

Database Users and Schemas

Each Oracle database has a list of user names. To access a database, a user must use a database application and attempt a connection with a valid user name of the database. Each user name has an associated password to prevent unauthorized use.

Security Domain

Each user has a security domain—a set of properties that determine such things as:
  • The actions (privileges and roles) available to the user
  • The tablespace quotas (available disk space) for the user
  • The system resource limits (for example, CPU processing time) for the user
Each property that contributes to a user's security domain is discussed in the following sections.


privilege is a right to run a particular type of SQL statement. Some examples of privileges include the right to:
  • Connect to the database (create a session)
  • Create a table in your schema
  • Select rows from someone else's table
  • Run someone else's stored procedure


Oracle provides for easy and controlled privilege management through roles. Roles are named groups of related privileges that you grant to users or other roles.

Profiles and Resource Limits

Each user is assigned a profile that specifies limitations on several system resources available to the user, including the following:
  • Number of concurrent sessions the user can establish
  • CPU processing time available for the user's session and a single call to Oracle made by a SQL statement
  • Amount of logical I/O available for the user's session and a single call to Oracle made by a SQL statement
  • Amount of idle time available for the user's session
  • Amount of connect time available for the user's session
  • Password restrictions:
    • Account locking after multiple unsuccessful login attempts
    • Password expiration and grace period
    • Password reuse and complexity restrictions

Authentication by the Oracle Database

Oracle can authenticate users attempting to connect to a database by using information stored in that database.

Password Encryption

To protect password confidentiality, Oracle always encrypts passwords before sending them over the network. Oracle encrypts the passwords using a modified AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) algorithm.

Account Locking

Oracle can lock a user's account after a specified number of consecutive failed log-in attempts. You can configure the account to unlock automatically after a specified time interval or to require database administrator intervention to be unlocked. The database administrator can also lock accounts manually, so that they must be unlocked explicitly by the database administrator.

Authentication by the Secure Socket Layer Protocol

The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol is an application layer protocol. Users identified either externally or globally (external or global users) can authenticate to a database through SSL.

Authentication of Database Administrators

Database administrators perform special operations (such as shutting down or starting up a database) that should not be performed by normal database users. Oracle provides a more secure authentication scheme for database administrator user names.

Consider the following relations: Employee ( E-ID, Name, P-ID) Project ( P-ID, E-ID, P- Cost, P-Profit) Consider the following query on these relations: List the E-ID, Name, P-Code and P-Profit whose E-ID is 2017001 
What is meant by the term view in context of DBMS? Why is it used? Consider the following student schema: Student( S-ID, S-Name, S-Program) Course(C-Code, C-Name) Enrolled( S-ID, C-Code) 
Create a view for a student who’s S-ID is 2017001 which show the list of all the courses registered by the student in a program. The list should show C-Code, C-Name and S-Program. Explain any four constraints for updating a tuple in a view. 
An organization undertakes manufacturing projects. There are different kinds of employees (full time and part time). Each employee can move on one or more projects. Each project is undertaken on the request of a client. A client can be a public sector company or a private sector company. A project can use a number of items from a different manufacturers and an item may be used by several projects. Clearly indicate the entities, attributes, relationship between entities, keys and cardinalities and make suitable assumptions. 
(a) Draw the EER (extended ER) diagram for the above organization showing all entities , relationship, aggregation, generalization /specialization and convert it into relational schemas
 (b) Draw the appropriate tables and relationship among the tables for the above diagram and normalize the tables up to 3NF
(c) Identify weak entity sets in the above diagram if any. How will you convert a weak entity set to a strong entity set? Illustrate.
(d) Identify multivalued dependency in the above diagram.
(e) Using the manufacturing example, write relational – algebra expressions to do the the following queries:
 • Find out how many employees working on P1 and P2 projects
• How many projects are using items I1 and I2. 

How do you define QoS? Why do you require it? How stringent the QoS requirements are for the following applications in terms of reliability, delay, jitter and bandwidth parameters? Draw a table showing the QoS requirements for each application and explain: 

 Applications: e-mail, file transfer, web- access, remote login, audio on demand, video on demand, videoconferencing. 

coming soon

Draw a figure showing congestion window Size as a function of transmission round (time) and briefly describe how does the slow start algorithm work? From the figure do the following tasks:

 • Identify the interval of time when TCP slow start in operating.
 • Identify the interval of time when TCP congestion avoidance is operating. 
• What is the value of the threshold? 
Discuss in detail the features, Process management, Memory management, I/O Management, File management and Security and Protection in Linux Operating System. 

Describe the following disk scheduling policies: First Come First Serve (FCFS), Shortest Seek Time First, SCAN, C-SCAN, Look and C-Look. Show the disk arm movement and calculate the number of tracks traversed using all of the policies if the disk has 200 tracks and the requested tracks, in the order received, are 55, 58, 39, 18, 90, 160, 150, 38, 184. 
 Explain the meaning and importance of the following terms with respect to CPU scheduling of processes: CPU bound, I/O bound, Pre-emptive, non-pre-emptive, turnaround time, normalised turnaround time and response ratio. 
With the aid of a diagram, describe what happens during the “fetchexecute” cycle. Include a description of how interrupts are detected. List various types of interrupts. Also explain in detail what happens when an interrupt occurs?