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With the aid of a diagram, describe what happens during the “fetch-execute” cycle. Include a description of how interrupts are  detected. List various types of interrupts. Also explain in detail what  happens when an interrupt occurs

Fetch/Execute Cycle

The fetch-execute cycle of the processor refers to the sequence that is completed for each instruction in a program.
  • Fetch Sequence
  1. Move the value in the program counter to the memory address register
  2. Send the value in the memory address register to memory via the address bus
  3. Return the value stored in memory via the data bus
  4. Store the value in the memory data register
  5. Copy the instruction from the memory address register to the instruction register
  6. Increment the program counter. The instruction in the instruction register is then Decoded
  • Execute Sequence

  1. The instruction is Executed

Types of Interrupts

Generally there are three types o Interrupts those are Occurred For Example

1)   Internal Interrupt
2)   Software Interrupt.
3)   External Interrupt.
The External Interrupt occurs when any Input and Output Device request for any Operation and the CPU will Execute that instructions first For Example When a Program is executed and when we move the Mouse on the Screen then the CPU will handle this External interrupt first and after that he will resume with his Operation. 
The Internal Interrupts are those which are occurred due to Some Problem in the Execution For Example When a user performing any Operation which contains any Error and which contains any type of Error. So that Internal Interrupts are those which are occurred by the Some Operations or by Some Instructions and the Operations those are not Possible but a user is trying for that Operation. And The Software Interrupts are those which are made some call to the System for Example while we are Processing Some Instructions and when we wants to Execute one more Application Programs.

Internet banking is an electronic payment system that facilitates  customers of a bank or other financial institutionsto conduct a  wide range of financial transactions through the financial  institution’s website. To access financial institut ions’ website, a  customer need to register with the institution for the services and  provide all the details for the verification. Basedon the  verification, customers are allocated passwords.

 The customer visits the financial institution‘s secure website,  enter the password and then does financial transactions. The  financial transactions include obtaining account balances,  payment through e-wallets, a list of recent transactions, electronic  bill payment, and fund transfer from a customer’ accounts to  another account. Most banks also allow customer to  download  copies of bank statements, which can be printed at the customer’s  premises. Some banks may charge for mailing hard copies. The  facility may also enable the customers to order a cheque 
book,  statements, report loss of credit cards and stop payment on a  cheque.
The bank also has a provision of an online feedbackfacility to  customers in order to improve its services  

Do the following tasks for the above internet banking problem.
Write short notes on the following:                                                                                   (20 Marks)
a) Outstanding Expenses
b) Master Budget
c) Dividend Policy
d) Trading and Profit and Loss 

a) Outstanding Expenses

Outstanding expenses are those expenses which have been incurred and consumed during an accounting period and are due to be paid, but are not paid. Examples include outstanding salary, outstanding rent, etc. Outstanding expenses are recorded in the books at the end of an accounting period to show true numbers of a business.

Outstanding expense is a personal account and is shown on the liability side of a balance sheet.

b)Master Budget

The master budget is a one-year budget planning document for the firm encompassing all other budgets. It coincides with the fiscal year of the firm and may be broken down into quarters and, further, into months. If the firm plans for the master budget to be an ongoing document, rolling from year to year, then normally a month is added to the end of the budget to facilitate planning. This is called continuous budgeting.

The budget committee usually develops the master budget for each year, guided by the Budget Director, who is usually the Controller of the company.

c) Dividend Policy

Dividend policy is the set of guidelines a company uses to decide how much of its earnings it will pay out to shareholders. Some evidence suggests that investors are not concerned with a company's dividend policy since they can sell a portion of their portfolio of equities if they want cash.

d) Trading and Profit/Loss account

Trading Account is an account that is prepared by the entities to know the profit earned or loss suffered from trading activities. On the other hand, Profit & Loss account is an account created to ascertain the net profit or loss for the period. This article excerpt deals with the difference between trading and profit & loss account.

Briefly Comment on the following:                                                                                    (20 Marks)
a)  Capital budgeting is the process in which a business determines and evaluates                   potential expenses or investments that are large in nature.
b)  Efficient cash management will intend at maximizingthe cash inflows and showing           cash outflows.
c)  Zero NPV project indicates normal profit.
d)  Cap rate reflects current returns on a non-levered basis.
        Distinguish between the following:                                                                       (20 Marks)
a)  Fixed and current assets
b)  spot exchange rate and currency futures exchange rate
c)  discount rate and a hurdle rate
d)  IRR and payback 
The board of directors recommends dividend on preference  shares and a dividend of 12% on equity shares after transferring 5% of net profit to general reserve. Please do  the rounding of general reserve to next hundred rupees.  Prepare the required financial statements. 

Issued share capital of the company is as under
(1)  30,000 equity shares
(2)  1,000 preference shares 
Authorised share capital of the company is as under
(1)  1,00,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each
(2)  1,000 preference shares of Rs. 100 each.
List out and explain the important methods of investment  proposals and discuss the conflicting opinions on the  fundamentals of these different basic approaches?

Assume that you are assigned responsibility of developing an  Online Admission System  (OAS)for a University. OAS  will have  all necessary fields that are essential for obtaining necessary  information from the applicant, scrutiny, and recommending  admission. After Application Form for Admission issubmitted, the  data in the    various needs to be validated by OAS regarding  eligibility, existence of PINCODE etc. Appropriate e-mail should be  sent to student acknowledging the submission of admission form  online. Make necessary assumptions.

For developing OASas specified above,

SRS of Online Admission System of University

1.    Introduction

1.1    Purpose

The Purpose of this document is to describe the Student Admission and Tracking System which will be used to automate the student admission process and other forms that the student submits for a particular request. It will also allow in the management of various programs that are offered by the ISE department. This Application’s Overall purpose is to make the student admission process and other form processing easier and also help manage programs offered by this department more efficiently. This document defines and describes the operations, interfaces, performance, and quality assurance requirements of the Student Admission and Tracking System.

1.2    Document Conventions

SATS – Student Admission and Tracking System

1.3    Intended Audience and Reading Suggestions

This document is intended for, developers, project managers, users, testers, and documentation writers. Rest of the document describes the software in more detail. This document is divided into the following sections:
·         the overall description section where, the perspective of the product, its features, user constraints, operating environment and  design and implementation constraints are described. 
·         System features, where major system features are described.
·         External interface requirements including, user Interfaces, hardware interfaces, software interfaces and communication interfaces are described.

1.4    Project Scope

SATS will be used to fully automate the student admission process. It will allow the faculty members and department coordinators to make the decision online without going through the traditional paper work. The system administrator will be able to manage the staff and the programs offered in the department online through this application by fully automating the process.

1.5    References

·         Use case Diagrams
·         Use case Descriptions

2.    Overall Description

2.1    Product Perspective

The applications is designed to automate the existing paper based student admission system and the overall staff management system in the ISE department of George Mason University. This the first time an automate student, staff and program management system will be used in the ISE department. This is intended to minimize the delay in the paper process and also in the better management of student, staff and program‘s records.

2.2    Product Features

ISE department offers two Masters programs and 5 certificate programs. The system will provide features to automate the student’s admission process into these programs. It will allow the students to fill various forms online and also allow faculty members and coordinators to make the decision online. The system will provide features to automate the process to create/update/delete various programs in the department. The system will provide a way to manage the staff and the decision committee in various programs offered by the department.

2.3    User Classes and Characteristics

The various user classes that will be using this product are:

Students: this class of users will be using the system to fill various forms and place requests.
Since the users will be applying for higher studies in the field relate to computers, they will have a basic knowledge and experience with various web based applications. Since filling the forms does not require much technical expertise it will be very easy for this class of users to use the sytem.

Faculty Members/ Department Coordinators: Faculty members and department coordinators will be having a good knowledge of the computer systems and also the operating environment in which these systems are working in the department. In order to use the system, the faculty members should be familiar with various form processes.

System Coordinator: The system administrator, which will be one of the department members, should be familiar with the department structure and functioning of the department. He/she must also be very well familiar with all the process in the department.

2.4    Operating Environment

The application can be run on desktop computers provided to the faculty and staff using internet explorer 5.0/higher or Netscape 5.0 or higher. The application run on the university tomcat server which a unix based environment. The application will be interacting with a backend database system, in this case an oracle server installed on the department computer system. The desktop computer from which the application is accessed should be running on windows 2000 or XP environment and the servers should be running on unix environment.

2.5    Design and Implementation Constraints

The system should be developed using tomcat server and oracle as a backend database. This is because the ISE department uses tomcat as the web server and oracle for the database. The faculty members and system administrators will be able to maintain the system efficiently as they are already experienced in it. Since tomcat server is used so the web pages should be designed as Servlet of JSP pages using Java as the programming language. Windows based environment should be used for documentation. Rational rose should be used to develop the design and analysis models for the system. After the system is deployed the department will be responsible for maintaining it.

2.6    Assumptions and Dependencies

If the user decides to change the database from Access to oracle or mysql. Then the following need to be done in order for the product to work
·         Change the database connection string wherever database is accessed
·         Tables and column names should be same as  used in the Access database

3.    System Features

This section describes the functional requirements of the system. This is organized into three major categories based on the users and various services provided for each of them. The categories are: Student features, faculty/Coordinator features, System Administrator features.

3.1    Student Features

These are the various Features provided for the Students of ISE department

3.1.1   The System shall allow the students to request the change in degree requirement courses

3.1.2   The System shall allow the students to request for change of degree

3.1.3      The System shall allow the students to request for transfer of credits from another institution or GMU non degree courses.
3.1.4      The System shall allow the student to request a plan of study for his/her Master’s degree program. (in this case SWE and IS).
3.1.5      The System shall allow students to fill in the self evaluation form online and store in their records for all the available master and certificate programs that the student is enrolled in. ( in this case SWE, IS, EC certificate, Information security certificate, SWE certificate, information engineering certificate.)
3.1.6      The system shall allow the student to request for a change in change his/ her academic status.
3.1.7      The System shall allow the student to request to take courses elsewhere outside GMU.

3.2  Faculty/Coordinator Features     

3.2.1      The System shall allow the faculty (Student Advisor) to Accept or reject change in degree requirement courses requested by a student.

3.2.2      The System shall allow the Department Coordinator to Accept or reject Change of degree requested by a student
3.2.3      The System shall allow the faculty to accept or reject the students request to transfer credits from another institution or GMU non degree.
3.2.4      The system shall allow the department coordinator to verify the decision taken by the faculty member on student’s request to transfer credits and accept or reject it.
3.2.5      The system shall allow the Department Dean to verify the decision taken by the faculty member and the department coordinator on student’s request to transfer credits and accept or reject it.
3.2.6      The System shall allow the faculty member (student advisor) to accept or reject the plan of studies requested by the student.
3.2.7      The System shall allow the Department Coordinator to accept or reject student’s self evaluation for a program and suggest any required courses to be taken.
3.2.8      The system shall allow the Faculty member to accept or reject change in academic status ( drop any course after the last day to drop courses is over) requested by a student.
3.2.9      The system shall allow the Faculty member (Student’s Advisor)  to accept or reject the student’s request to allow him/her to take courses elsewhere outside GMU.
3.2.10   The System shall allow the Department Coordinator to verify the decision taken on Student’s request to take courses elsewhere by faculty member and accept or reject it.
3.2.11   The system shall allow the Department Dean to verify the decision taken on the Student’s request to take courses elsewhere by faculty and department coordinator and accept or reject it.
3.2.12   The system shall allow the Faculty member to review the student’s application for admission into a program and comment on it.
3.2.13   The system shall allow the Department coordinator to review the comments made by the faculty member on an applicant’s application and accept or reject him/her into the program requested.
3.2.14   The system shall allow the faculty member and department coordinator to view the applicant’s image files such as the transcripts and recommendation letters etc.

3.3       System Administrator Features

3.3.1      The System shall allow the system administrator to create student’s application by entering the information given by the student in the admission application into the database

3.3.2      The System shall allow the system administrator to create a student user.
3.3.3      The system shall allow the system administrator to create a staff user (including faculty member, department coordinator and a Department chair and associate dean)
3.3.4      The system shall allow the system administrator to store applicant’s image files consisting of the applicant’s transcripts, recommendation letters etc.
3.3.5       The system shall allow the system administrator to find a particular user in the SATS database.
3.3.6      The system shall allow the system administrator to update user information or deactivate a user from SATS database.
3.3.7      The System shall allow the system administrator to update/modify student’s information.
3.3.8      The system shall allow the system administrator to update foundation courses for a program
3.3.9      The system shall allow the system administrator to create a new degree program in the department
3.3.10   The system shall allow the system administrator to update the existing degree program in the department.
3.3.11   The system shall allow the system administrator to create or update guidelines for standardized tests such as GRE, TOIFEL

3.4       General Features

3.4.1      The system shall allow the a decision letter to be generated when a decision is made on an application or form submitted by a student.

3.4.2      The system shall run pending reports when ever a student makes a request form or when a form accepted by a staff member has to passed on to another staff member for a decision.
3.4.3      The system shall allow a person to log into the SATS and depending on the user type, appropriate menu is displayed.

4.    External Interface Requirements

4.1    User Interfaces

The following are the guidelines to be followed in designing user interface for the web pages.
  • Horizontal green bar on the top
  • Link to George Mason University main page
  • Link to ISE main page
  • Title of the page (centered, Title case, Dark Green colored, size <h3>
  • Font – Arial, 2pt(size), black,
  • Copy rite in the bottom of the page
Ø  for an example template please refer to the Sats_template.html

4.2    Software Interfaces



Rational Rose

Forte (sun one studio)


<Optionally, include any pertinent analysis models, such as data flow diagrams, class diagrams, state-transition diagrams, or entity-relationship diagrams.>
< This is a dynamic list of the open requirements issues that remain to be resolved, including TBDs, pending decisions, information that is needed, conflicts awaiting resolution, and the like.>

SEE the MCS-033 Study material 
Block 1
Page no. 27
Example 4

Ore's theorem is a result in graph theory proved in 1960 by Norwegian mathematician Øystein Ore. It gives a sufficient condition for a graph to be Hamiltonian, essentially stating that a graph with "sufficiently many edges" must contain a Hamilton cycle. Specifically, the theorem considers the sum of the degrees of any two non-adjacent vertices: if this sum is always at least equal to the total number of vertices in the graph, then the graph is Hamiltonian.

 Formal statement

Let G be a (finite and simple) graph with n ≥ 3 vertices. We denote by deg v the degree of a vertex v in G, i.e. the number of incident edges in G to v. Then, Ore's theorem states that if
deg v + deg w ≥ n for every pair of non-adjacent vertices v and w of G (*)
then G is Hamiltonian.


Suppose it were possible to construct a graph that fulfils condition (*) which is not Hamiltonian. According to this supposition, let G be a graph on n ≥ 3 vertices that satisfies property (*), is not Hamiltonian, and has the maximum possible number of edges among all n-vertex non-Hamiltonian graphs that satisfy property (*). Because the number of edges was chosen to be maximal, G must contain a Hamiltonian path, for otherwise it would be possible to add edges to G without breaching property (*). Since G is not Hamiltonian, v1 cannot be adjacent to vn, for otherwise would be a Hamiltonian cycle. By property (*), deg v1 + deg vn ≥ n, and the pigeon hole principle implies that for some i in the range 2 ≤ i ≤ n − 1, vi is adjacent to v1 and vi − 1 is adjacent to vn. But the cycle − 1vnvn − is then a Hamilton cycle. This contradiction yields the result.


Palmer (1997) describes the following simple algorithm for constructing a Hamiltonian cycle in a graph meeting Ore's condition.
Arrange the vertices arbitrarily into a cycle, ignoring adjacencies in the graph.
While the cycle contains two consecutive vertices vi and vi + 1 that are not adjacent in the graph, perform the following two steps:

Search for an index j such that the four vertices vi, vi + 1, vj, and vj + 1 are all distinct and such that the graph contains edges from vi to vj and from vj + 1 to vi + 1
Reverse the part of the cycle between vi + 1 and vj (inclusive).

Each step increases the number of consecutive pairs in the cycle that are adjacent in the graph, by one or two pairs (depending on whether vj and vj + 1 are already adjacent), so the outer loop can only happen at most n times before the algorithm terminates, where n is the number of vertices in the given graph. By an argument similar to the one in the proof of the theorem, the desired index j must exist, or else the nonadjacent vertices vi and vi + 1 would have too small a total degree. Finding i and j, and reversing part of the cycle, can all be accomplished in time O(n). Therefore, the total time for the algorithm is O(n2), matching the number of edges in the input graph.

See second block of your study material
 What are the practical application of Hamilton path& circuit? State  Dirac’s and Ore’s theorems for a Hamilton circuit. 

Abstract: Multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) is currently the most popular methodology in industry for implementing a power gating design, which can effectively reduce the leakage power by turning off inactive circuit domains. However, large peak current may be consumed in a power-gated domain during its sleep-to-active mode transition. As a result, major IC foundries recommend turning on power switches one by one to reduce the peak current during the mode transition, which requires a Hamiltonian-cycle routing to serially connect all the power switches. ...
  • Another """application""" (note the triple quotes :-) is puzzle games ... for example in the game RoundTrip (a.k.a. GrandTour) you must find an Hamiltonian circuit in a grid of points in which some of the edges are given.
enter image description here
But there are many other puzzles/videogames that are directly inspired by the Hamiltonian circuit/path problem: Inertia, Pearl, Rolling Cube Puzzles, Slither,...
... and the "hardness" of HC makes them addictive: even small instances can be very hard to solve for our brain!!!

The population of tigers increases 4 percent per year. In 2000 the  population was 15000. What was the population 30 years back i.e in  year 1970? 
Write whether or not each recurrence relation in the following  problems is a linear homogeneous with constant coefficient.. Also  show the order of each linear homogeneous recurrence relation. 
Write generic formulae for a linear homogenous recurrence relation 
of order K with constant coefficient. Write all thesteps for solving 
this type of a recurrence relation.
Write short note on followings (minimum in 300 words)
i)  One –way association and two-way association 
ii)  Issues in Concurrency Control 

One way association would be where the two objects have a one-many relationship (for instance an author object and a collection of book title objects). Two way association is where properties of each individual object combine to reference something unique (that neither object can reference on its own). A street number object and a road object. With them both, you get a house address.
To make this confusing, the analogy also works for an author object and book title object. There may be many authors with the same name, many books with the same name, but there is generally only one unique combination of author and book (most authors don't write multiple things and call them all exactly the same thing).

Functional Model and Object Model

The four main parts of a Functional Model in terms of object model are:
  • Process : Processes imply the methods of the objects that need to be implemented.
  • Actors : Actors are the objects in the object model.
  • Data Stores : These are either objects in the object model or attributes of objects.
  • Data Flows : Data flows to or from actors represent operations on or by objects. Data flows to or from data stores represent queries or updates.