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 If you need to line up the cells next to each other you can resize and move the layout cells as you need. You can change the size of a layout cell by using one of its resize handles.

You cannot click and drag a cell to move it to a new position. If you need to move a layout cell to reposition it in a document, follow these steps

  1. Click the border of a layout cell to select it.
  2. To move the layout cell, do one of the following:

    1- Use the arrow keys.
    2- Hold down Shift and use the arrow keys to move a layout cell 5 pixels at a time.

• With no arguments and with no return value.
• With no arguments and with return value
• With arguments and with no return value
• With arguments and with return value

 Besides three storage class specifications namely, Automatic, External and Static, there is a register storage class. Registers are special storage areas within a computer’s CPU. All the arithmetic and logical operations are carried out with these registers.

For the same program, the execution time can be reduced if certain values can be stored in registers rather than memory. These programs are smaller in size (as few instructions are required) and few data transfers are required. The reduction is there in machine code and not in source code. They are declared by the proceeding declaration
by register reserved word as follows:

register int m;

Points to remember:

• These variables are stored in registers of computers. If the registers are not available they are put in memory.
• Usually 2 or 3 register variables are there in the program.
• Scope is same as automatic variable, local to a function in which they are declared.
• Address operator ‘&’ cannot be applied to a register variable.
• If the register is not available the variable is though to be like the automatic variable.
• Usually associated integer variable but with other types it is allowed having same size (short or unsigned).
• Can be formal arguments in functions.
• Pointers to register variables are not allowed.
• These variables can be used for loop indices also to increase efficiency.

 In case of single file programs static variables are defined within functions and individually have the same scope as automatic variables. But static variables retain their values throughout the execution of program within their previous values.

Points to remember:
• The specifier precedes the declaration. Static and the value cannot be accessed outside of their defining function.
• The static variables may have same name as that of external variables but the local variables take precedence in the function. Therefore external variables maintain their independence with locally defined auto and static variables.
• Initial value is expressed as the constant and not expression.
• Zeros are assigned to all variables whose declarations do not include explicit initial values. Hence they always have assigned values.
• Initialization is done only is the first execution

 These are not confined to a single function. Their scope ranges from the point of declaration to the entire remaining program. Therefore, their scope may be the entire program or two or more functions depending upon where they are declared.

Points to remember:
• These are global and can be accessed by any function within its scope.
Therefore value may be assigned in one and can be written in another.
• There is difference in external variable definition and declaration.
• External Definition is the same as any variable declaration:

            • Usually lies outside or before the function accessing it.

• It allocates storage space required.
• Initial values can be assigned.
• The external specifier is not required in external variable definition.
• A declaration is required if the external variable definition comes after the function definition.
• A declaration begins with an external specifier.
• Only when external variable is defined is the storage space allocated.
• External variables can be assigned initial values as a part of variable definitions, but the values must be constants rather than expressions.
• If initial value is not included then it is automatically assigned a va

 The variables local to a function are automatic i.e., declared within the function. The scope of lies within the function itself. The automatic defined in different functions, even if they have same name, are treated as different. It is the default storage class for variables declared in a function.

Points to remember:
• The auto is optional therefore there is no need to write it.
• All the formal arguments also have the auto storage class.
• The initialization of the auto-variables can be done:

           • in declarations
           • using assignment expression in a function

• If not initialized the unpredictable value is defined.
• The value is not retained after exit from the program.

 LCDs are the screens of choice for portable computers and lightweight screens. They consume very little electricity and have advanced technologically to quite good resolutions and color support. They were developed by the company RCA in the 1960s. LCDs function simply by blocking available light so as to render display patterns.

LCDs can be of the following types:

  1. Reflective LCDs: Display is generated by selectively blocking reflected light.
  2. Backlit LCDs : Display is due to a light source behind LCD panel.
  3. Edgelit LCDs : Display is due to a light source adjacent to the LCD panel.


LCD Technology
The technology behind LCD is called Nematic Technology because the molecules of the liquid crystals used are nematic i.e. rod-shaped. This liquid is sandwiched between two thin plastic membranes. These crystals have the special property that they can change the polarity and the bend of the light and this can be controlled by grooves in the plastic and by applying electric current.

Passive Matrix
In a passive matrix arrangement, the LCD panel has a grid of horizontal and vertex conductors and each pixel is located at an intersection. When a current is received by the pixel, it becomes dark. This is the technology which is more commonly used,

Active Matrix
This is called TFT (Thin Film Transistor) technology. In this there is a transistor at every pixel acting as a relay, receiving a small amount and making it much higher to activate the pixel. Since the amount is smaller, it can travel faster and hence response times are much faster. However, TFTs are much more difficult to fabricate and are costlier

 We have discussed about resolutions and vertical and horizontal refresh rates in the section on Video Cards. Let us refer to them from the monitor point of view. So, we have the following definitions (from the manual of a monitor available in the market):

Horizontal Frequency: The time to scan me line connecting the right edge to the left edge of the screen horizontally is called the horizontal cycle and the inverse number of the Horizontal cycle is called Horizontal Frequency. The unit is KH Kilo Hertz),

Verticals Frequency: Like a Fluorescent lamp, the screen has to repeat the same Image many times per second to display an image to the user, The frequency of this repetition is called Vertical Frequency or Refresh Rate.

If the resolution generated by the video card and the monitor resolution is properly matched, you get a good quality display. However, the actual resolution achieved is a physical quality of the monitor. In color systems, the resolution is limited by Convergence (Do the beam of the 3 colors converge exactly on the same dot? ) and the Dot Pitch. In monochrome monitors, the resolution is only limited by the highest frequency signals the monitor can handle.

 3D Accelerator is no magic technology. It is simply an accelerator chip that has built-in ability to carry out the mathematics and the algorithms required for 3-D image generation and rendering. A 3-D imaging is simply an illusion, a projection of 3-D reality on a 2-D screen. These are generated by projection and perspective effects, . depth and lighting effects, transparency effects and techniques such as Ray-Tracing (Tracing the path of light rays emitting from a light source), Z-buffering (a buffer strong the

 The other popular way Ls to attach a disk drive to a PC via a SCSI interface. The common drive choice for servers or high-end workstations with drive capacities ranges from 100MB to 20GB and rotation speed 7200RPM, It is w common 110 interface between the adapter and disk drives or any other peripheral, I.@., CP; ROMs drives, @pe drives, printers etc.