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[Solved]: Hadamard gate on entangled qubit

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TL;DR: If you have two entangled qubits in the state $|00\rangle + |11\rangle$, what is the result of applying the Hadamard gate on the second qubit, and why?

I am trying to understand $\text{PSPACE} \subseteq \text{QIP}(3)$ (Watrous, 2003), and have troubles understanding the following.

Hadamard gate: Given some qubit, one can test that it is in a uniform superposition by applying the Hadamard gate on it as it will map it to $|0\rangle$ in this case, $$H(|0\rangle + |1\rangle) = |0\rangle.$$ By measuring it, you have some probability to get a $1$ iff. the qubit was not in a perfectly uniform state.

With entanglement: Now, the paper claims that you can use the Hadamard gate to detect entanglement as well. Given two qubits, $x,y$, that are perfectly entangled, you can have them in the superposition $$xy = |00\rangle + |11\rangle.$$ I understand that if you measure $x$, then apply the Hadamard gate to $y$, it will not map it to $|0\rangle$ as it will be entirely determinated by the measurement made on $x$.

What I don't understand: They do not claim to be able to measure/collapse the qubits that are entangled with the qubits they want to test, so how does it work? If you have two entangled qubits in the state $|00\rangle + |11\rangle$, what is the result of applying the Hadamard gate on the second qubit, and why?

Where is it in the paper:

  • When skecthing the protocol at the end of the introduction section (End of first paragraph, page 2):

    If there is significant correlation between the low-index prover responses and the high-index verifier-messages, the uniformity test [Hadamard gate, measure 0s] will fail with high probability

  • When discussing the completeness of the protocol, in particular step 2. of the verifier (start of page 8):

    Next, the verifier applies the Hadamard transform to every qubit in each register of $\bar{R^u}$. If $\bar{R^u}$ now contains only 0 values, the verifier accepts, otherwise the verifier rejects. In short, the verifier is projecting the state of $\bar{R^u}$ onto the state where $\bar{R^u}$ is uniformly distributed over all possible values. It is easy to check that in the case of the honest prover the registers $\bar{R^u}$ are not entangled with any other registers, as each register of $P^u$ depends only on those of $R^u$, and are in a uniform superposition over all possible values. Thus, the verifier accepts with certainty in this case.

  • Also in the proof of soundess, same page
Asked By : Winks

Answered By : Agent Gotse

If you mean result in terms of state, then you can compute this by applying the matrix $I \otimes H$ to the Bell state.

If you mean what happens operationally, then observe that applying a hadamard gate on each qubit of the Bell state results in no change -- the resulting state is again the Bell state. So, if you apply two hadamard gates in parallel or none at all and then you measure both qubits, you will get perfect correlations between the measurement outcomes (measurement outcomes on the qubits are guaranteed to be equal). However, if you apply a hadamard gate to either the second qubit or the first qubit and then measure both qubits, then the measurement outcomes will be completely independent of each other, that is, the measurement result of the first qubit can be $0$ or $1$ with $50\%$ probability and the measurement result of the second qubit can be $0$ or $1$ with $50\%$ probability, regardless of what was seen in the other measurement.


Given the state $|00\rangle + |11\rangle$, you can not compute the Hadamard gate on only one qubit, as the state is entangled and cannot be factored into two independent qubits. You can, however, apply the result of $I \otimes H$, which is the operation of applying Identity gate on the first qubit and the Hadamard gate on the second. The resulting operation is, with scaling factor $s$,

$$ I \otimes H = \left[\begin{matrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end{matrix}\right] \otimes \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left[\begin{matrix} 1 & 1 \\ 1 & -1 \end{matrix}\right] = s\left[\begin{matrix} 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & -1 \\ \end{matrix}\right]$$

For more details on this, see the question How to apply a 1-qubit gate to a single qubit from an entangled pair?.

Now, you can pass your entangled state, $ \left[\begin{matrix} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} & 0 & 0 & \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\\ \end{matrix}\right]^{T} $ for $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}|00\rangle + \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}|11\rangle$, through the gate and get $$ s\left[\begin{matrix} 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & -1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & -1 \\ \end{matrix}\right] \left[\begin{matrix} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\\ \end{matrix}\right] = \frac{1}{2}\left[\begin{matrix} 1 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ -1\\ \end{matrix}\right] $$ Which is the state $$|00\rangle + |01\rangle + |10\rangle - |11\rangle.$$ And measurement of the first qubit or the second qubit would be 0 or 1 with equal probability, and give no information on the state of the other qubit.

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