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the importance of security in Information System and explain the various measures against the threats to the system. Also, discuss the importance of information security policies and information security plan.

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Ans. As computers and other digital devices have become essential to business and commerce, they have also increasingly become a target for attacks. In order for a company or an individual to use a computing device with confidence, they must first be assured that the device is not compromised in any way and that all communications will be secure.

The security triad

The Information Security Triad: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability (CIA)


When protecting information, we want to be able to restrict access to those who are allowed to see it; everyone else should be disallowed from learning anything about its contents. This is the essence of confidentiality. For example, federal law requires that universities restrict access to private student information. The university must be sure that only those who are authorized have access to view the grade records.


Integrity is the assurance that the information being accessed has not been altered and truly represents what is intended. Just as a person with integrity means what he or she says and can be trusted to consistently represent the truth, information integrity means information truly represents its intended meaning. Information can lose its integrity through malicious intent, such as when someone who is not authorized makes a change to intentionally misrepresent something. An example of this would be when a hacker is hired to go into the university’s system and change a grade.
Integrity can also be lost unintentionally, such as when a computer power surge corrupts a file or someone authorized to make a change accidentally deletes a file or enters incorrect information.


Information availability is the third part of the CIA triad. Availability means that information can be accessed and modified by anyone authorized to do so in an appropriate timeframe. Depending on the type of information, appropriate timeframe can mean different things. For example, a stock trader needs information to be available immediately, while a sales person may be happy to get sales numbers for the day in a report the next morning. Companies such as will require their servers to be available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Other companies may not suffer if their web servers are down for a few minutes once in a while.
Measures against threats for security….
·          Install Anti-Virus Software.
Ensure that reputable anti-virus software is installed on all computers. This should include all servers, PCs and laptops. If employees use computers at home for business use or to remotely access the network, these PCs should also have anti-virus software installed.
·          Ensure that the anti-virus software is up to date.
Everyday new computer viruses are being released and it is essential that businesses are protected from these viruses by keeping the anti-virus software up to date. If possible, companies should look at policies whereby computers that do not have the most up to date anti-virus software installed are not allowed to connect to the network.
·          Employ a firewall to protect networks.
As computer viruses can spread by means other than email, it is important that unwanted traffic is blocked from entering the network by using a firewall. For users that use computers for business away from the protection of the company’s network, such as
  • Filter all email traffic.
    All incoming and outgoing email should be filtered for computer viruses. This filter should ideally be at the perimeter of the network to prevent computer viruses. Emails with certain file attachments commonly used by computer viruses to spread themselves, such as .EXE, .COM and .SCR files, should also be prevented from entering the network.
  • Educate all users to be careful of suspicious e-mails.
    Ensure that all users know to never open an attachment or to click on a link in an email they are not expecting. Even when the email is from a known source, caution should be exercised when opening attachments or clicking on links in emails. Criminals use the trust placed in an email contact you know to trick you into clicking on a link or attachment.
An Information Security Plan (ISP) is designed to protect information and critical resources from a wide range of threats in order to ensure business continuity, minimize business risk, and maximize return on investments and business opportunities. Information Technology (IT) security is achieved by implementing a suitable set of controls, including policies, processes, procedures, organizational structures, and software and hardware functions. These controls need to be established, implemented, monitored, reviewed and improved, where necessary, to ensure that the specific security and business objectives of Michigan Technological University are met. This plan governs the privacy, security, and confidentiality of University data, especially highly sensitive data, and the responsibilities of departments and individuals for such data. IT security measures are intended to protect information assets and preserve the privacy of Michigan Tech employees, students, sponsors, suppliers, and other associated entities. Inappropriate use exposes Michigan Tech to risks including virus attacks, compromise of network system services and legal issues.
The purpose of this document is to ensure that appropriate measures are put in place to protect corporate information and the Information Technology Services (ITS) systems, services and equipment of the Federation University Australia and associated infrastructure.
The objectives of the Information Security Policy are:
·          To secure the University’s assets against theft, fraud, malicious or accidental damage, breach of privacy or confidentiality; and
·          To protect the University from damage or liability arising from the use of its ITS facilities for purposes contrary to the Federation University Australia Legislation and Policies.


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