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Discuss the significance and requirements of EIS (Executive information system) and ESS (executive support system). Also, explain the differences between MIS and EIS.

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Ans. Executive information system
An executive information system (EIS) is a decision support system (DSS) used to assist senior executives in the decision-making process. It does this by providing easy access to important data needed to achieve strategic goals in an organization. An EIS normally features graphical displays on an easy-to-use interface.

Executive information systems can be used in many different types of organizations to monitor enterprise performance as well as to identify opportunities and problems.
EIS helps executives find data according to user-defined criteria and promote information-based insight and understanding. Unlike a traditional management information system presentation, EIS can distinguish between vital and seldom-used data, and track different key critical activities for executives, both which are helpful in evaluating if the company is meeting its corporate objectives. After realizing its advantages, people have applied EIS in many areas, especially, in manufacturing, marketing, and finance areas.
Executive support system
An Executive Support System (ESS) is software that allows users to transform enterprise data into quickly accessible and executive-level reports, such as those used by billing, accounting and staffing departments. An ESS enhances decision making for executives.
ESS is also known as Executive Information System (EIS).
An ESS facilitates access to organized enterprise and departmental data while providing analysis utilities and performance assessment predictors. An ESS provides potential outcomes and quick statistical data that are applied to decision making processes.
Ultimately, ESS reporting tools and results are contingent on developer and industry application. For example, Cambridge Systematics, Inc. built an ESS that is integrated with the investment plan for the Ministry of Transportation in Canada.
Difference between MIS and  EIS
 MIS is generally more sophisticated reporting systems built on existing transaction processing systems
-    Often used to support structured decision making (decisions that can be described in detail before the decision is made)
-    Typically will also support tactical level management, but sometimes are used at other levels
-   Examples of structured decisions supported by MIS might include deciding on stock levels or the pricing of products.

-      EIS support a range of decision making, but more often than not, this tends to be unstructured
-     EIS support the executive level of management, often used to formulate high level strategic decisions impacting on the direction of the organization
-     These systems will usually have the ability to extract summary data from internal systems, along with external data that provides intelligence on the environment of the organization
-   Generally these systems work by providing a user friendly interface into other systems, both internal and external to the organization

Information processing
Status Access
Typical Users
Middle, lower levels, sometime senior executives
Senior Executives Expediency
Production control, sales forecasts, financial analysis,
human resource management
Environmental scanning, performance
evaluation, identifying problems and
Decision Support
Direct or indirect support, mainly
structured routine problems, using standard operations,
research and other models
Indirect support, mainly high level and
unstructured decisions and policies
Type of
Scheduled and demand reports; structured flow, exception reporting mainly internal operations
News items, external information on
customers, competitors and the environment
Principal Use
Tracking and control
Adaptability to
Individual User
Usually none, standardized
Tailored to the decision making style
of each individual executive, offers
several options of outputs
A must
User Friendliness
A must
Treatment of
Information is provided to a
diversified group of users who then manipulate it or summarize
it as needed
Filters and compresses the
information, tracks critical data and
Supporting Detailed
Inflexibility of reports, cannot get
the supporting details quickly
Instant access to the supporting
details of any summary
Model Base
Standard Models are available but
are not managed
Can be added, usually not included or
limited in nature
By vendors or IS specialists
By Vendors or IS Specialists
Mainframes, Micros or
Distributed system
Nature of
Application oriented,
performance reports,
strong reporting capabilities, standard statistical, financial, accounting and management science models
Interactive, easy to access multiple databases, on-line access, sophisticated DBMS capabilities
and complex linkages


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