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What is Object Oriented Programming? Explain advantages of Object Oriented Programming with the help of an example.

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Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around objects rather than "actions" and data rather than logic. Historically, a program has been viewed as a logical procedure that takes input data, processes it, and produces output data.
The programming challenge was seen as how to write the logic, not how to define the data. Object-oriented programming takes the view that what we really care about are the objects we want to manipulate rather than the logic required to manipulate them. Examples of objects range from human beings (described by name, address, and so forth) to buildings and floors (whose properties can be described and managed) down to the little widgets on a computer desktop (such as buttons and scroll bars).
The first step in OOP is to identify all the objects the programmer wants to manipulate and how they relate to each other, an exercise often known as data modeling. Once an object has been identified,  it is generalized as a class of objects (think of Plato's concept of the "ideal" chair that stands for all chairs) which defines the kind of data it contains and any logic sequences that can manipulate it.
Object-Oriented Programming has the following advantages over conventional approaches:
  • OOP provides a clear modular structure for programs which makes it good for defining abstract datatypes where implementation details are hidden and the unit has a clearly defined interface.
  • OOP makes it easy to maintain and modify existing code as new objects can be created with small differences to existing ones.
  • OOP provides a good framework for code libraries where supplied software components can be easily adapted and modified by the programmer. This is particularly useful for developing graphical user interfaces.

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